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#1 2019-10-09 21:29:42

pythinker
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注册时间: 2019-02-12
累计积分: 36

Ubuntu18.04 python3 pygame 使用入门

0.  安装 python3:   sudo apt-get install python3 python3-pip

1.  安装 pygame 库: python3 -m pip install pygame

2.  pygame 入门指南: https://www.edureka.co/blog/pygame-tutorial

3. 一个小程序, test.py:

#!/usr/bin/python3
import pygame
 
def main():
    pygame.init()
    screen = pygame.display.set_mode((640, 480))
    clock = pygame.time.Clock()
     
    radius = 15
    x = 0
    y = 0
    mode = 'blue'
    points = []
     
    while True:
         
        pressed = pygame.key.get_pressed()
         
        alt_held = pressed[pygame.K_LALT] or pressed[pygame.K_RALT]
        ctrl_held = pressed[pygame.K_LCTRL] or pressed[pygame.K_RCTRL]
         
        for event in pygame.event.get():
             
            # determin if X was clicked, or Ctrl+W or Alt+F4 was used
            if event.type == pygame.QUIT:
                return
            if event.type == pygame.KEYDOWN:
                if event.key == pygame.K_w and ctrl_held:
                    return
                if event.key == pygame.K_F4 and alt_held:
                    return
                if event.key == pygame.K_ESCAPE:
                    return
             
                # determine if a letter key was pressed 
                if event.key == pygame.K_r:
                    mode = 'red'
                elif event.key == pygame.K_g:
                    mode = 'green'
                elif event.key == pygame.K_b:
                    mode = 'blue'
             
            if event.type == pygame.MOUSEBUTTONDOWN:
                if event.button == 1: # left click grows radius 
                    radius = min(200, radius + 1)
                elif event.button == 3: # right click shrinks radius
                    radius = max(1, radius - 1)
             
            if event.type == pygame.MOUSEMOTION:
                # if mouse moved, add point to list 
                position = event.pos
                points = points + [position]
                points = points[-256:]
                 
        screen.fill((0, 0, 0))
         
        # draw all points 
        i = 0
        while i < len(points) - 1:
            drawLineBetween(screen, i, points[i], points[i + 1], radius, mode)
            i += 1
         
        pygame.display.flip()
         
        clock.tick(60)
 
def drawLineBetween(screen, index, start, end, width, color_mode):
    c1 = max(0, min(255, 2 * index - 256))
    c2 = max(0, min(255, 2 * index))
     
    if color_mode == 'blue':
        color = (c1, c1, c2)
    elif color_mode == 'red':
        color = (c2, c1, c1)
    elif color_mode == 'green':
        color = (c1, c2, c1)
     
    dx = start[0] - end[0]
    dy = start[1] - end[1]
    iterations = max(abs(dx), abs(dy))
     
    for i in range(iterations):
        progress = 1.0 * i / iterations
        aprogress = 1 - progress
        x = int(aprogress * start[0] + progress * end[0])
        y = int(aprogress * start[1] + progress * end[1])
        pygame.draw.circle(screen, color, (x, y), width)
 
main()

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#2 2019-10-09 21:34:25

pythinker
会员
注册时间: 2019-02-12
累计积分: 36

Re: Ubuntu18.04 python3 pygame 使用入门

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#3 2019-10-09 22:01:32

pythinker
会员
注册时间: 2019-02-12
累计积分: 36

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#4 2019-10-09 22:20:51

pythinker
会员
注册时间: 2019-02-12
累计积分: 36

Re: Ubuntu18.04 python3 pygame 使用入门

#!/usr/bin/python3

# Tetromino (a Tetris clone)
# By Al Sweigart al@inventwithpython.com
# http://inventwithpython.com/pygame
# Released under a "Simplified BSD" license

import random, time, pygame, sys
from pygame.locals import *

FPS = 25
WINDOWWIDTH = 640
WINDOWHEIGHT = 480
BOXSIZE = 20
BOARDWIDTH = 10
BOARDHEIGHT = 20
BLANK = '.'

MOVESIDEWAYSFREQ = 0.15
MOVEDOWNFREQ = 0.1

XMARGIN = int((WINDOWWIDTH - BOARDWIDTH * BOXSIZE) / 2)
TOPMARGIN = WINDOWHEIGHT - (BOARDHEIGHT * BOXSIZE) - 5

#               R    G    B
WHITE       = (255, 255, 255)
GRAY        = (185, 185, 185)
BLACK       = (  0,   0,   0)
RED         = (155,   0,   0)
LIGHTRED    = (175,  20,  20)
GREEN       = (  0, 155,   0)
LIGHTGREEN  = ( 20, 175,  20)
BLUE        = (  0,   0, 155)
LIGHTBLUE   = ( 20,  20, 175)
YELLOW      = (155, 155,   0)
LIGHTYELLOW = (175, 175,  20)

BORDERCOLOR = BLUE
BGCOLOR = BLACK
TEXTCOLOR = WHITE
TEXTSHADOWCOLOR = GRAY
COLORS      = (     BLUE,      GREEN,      RED,      YELLOW)
LIGHTCOLORS = (LIGHTBLUE, LIGHTGREEN, LIGHTRED, LIGHTYELLOW)
assert len(COLORS) == len(LIGHTCOLORS) # each color must have light color

TEMPLATEWIDTH = 5
TEMPLATEHEIGHT = 5

S_SHAPE_TEMPLATE = [['.....',
                     '.....',
                     '..OO.',
                     '.OO..',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '..O..',
                     '..OO.',
                     '...O.',
                     '.....']]

Z_SHAPE_TEMPLATE = [['.....',
                     '.....',
                     '.OO..',
                     '..OO.',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '..O..',
                     '.OO..',
                     '.O...',
                     '.....']]

I_SHAPE_TEMPLATE = [['..O..',
                     '..O..',
                     '..O..',
                     '..O..',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '.....',
                     'OOOO.',
                     '.....',
                     '.....']]

O_SHAPE_TEMPLATE = [['.....',
                     '.....',
                     '.OO..',
                     '.OO..',
                     '.....']]

J_SHAPE_TEMPLATE = [['.....',
                     '.O...',
                     '.OOO.',
                     '.....',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '..OO.',
                     '..O..',
                     '..O..',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '.....',
                     '.OOO.',
                     '...O.',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '..O..',
                     '..O..',
                     '.OO..',
                     '.....']]

L_SHAPE_TEMPLATE = [['.....',
                     '...O.',
                     '.OOO.',
                     '.....',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '..O..',
                     '..O..',
                     '..OO.',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '.....',
                     '.OOO.',
                     '.O...',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '.OO..',
                     '..O..',
                     '..O..',
                     '.....']]

T_SHAPE_TEMPLATE = [['.....',
                     '..O..',
                     '.OOO.',
                     '.....',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '..O..',
                     '..OO.',
                     '..O..',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '.....',
                     '.OOO.',
                     '..O..',
                     '.....'],
                    ['.....',
                     '..O..',
                     '.OO..',
                     '..O..',
                     '.....']]

PIECES = {'S': S_SHAPE_TEMPLATE,
          'Z': Z_SHAPE_TEMPLATE,
          'J': J_SHAPE_TEMPLATE,
          'L': L_SHAPE_TEMPLATE,
          'I': I_SHAPE_TEMPLATE,
          'O': O_SHAPE_TEMPLATE,
          'T': T_SHAPE_TEMPLATE}


def main():
    global FPSCLOCK, DISPLAYSURF, BASICFONT, BIGFONT
    pygame.init()
    FPSCLOCK = pygame.time.Clock()
    DISPLAYSURF = pygame.display.set_mode((WINDOWWIDTH, WINDOWHEIGHT))
    BASICFONT = pygame.font.Font('freesansbold.ttf', 18)
    BIGFONT = pygame.font.Font('freesansbold.ttf', 100)
    pygame.display.set_caption('Tetromino')

    showTextScreen('Tetromino')
    while True: # game loop
        #if random.randint(0, 1) == 0:
            #pygame.mixer.music.load('tetrisb.mid')
        #else:
            #pygame.mixer.music.load('tetrisc.mid')
        #pygame.mixer.music.play(-1, 0.0)
        runGame()
        #pygame.mixer.music.stop()
        showTextScreen('Game Over')


def runGame():
    # setup variables for the start of the game
    board = getBlankBoard()
    lastMoveDownTime = time.time()
    lastMoveSidewaysTime = time.time()
    lastFallTime = time.time()
    movingDown = False # note: there is no movingUp variable
    movingLeft = False
    movingRight = False
    score = 0
    level, fallFreq = calculateLevelAndFallFreq(score)

    fallingPiece = getNewPiece()
    nextPiece = getNewPiece()

    while True: # game loop
        if fallingPiece == None:
            # No falling piece in play, so start a new piece at the top
            fallingPiece = nextPiece
            nextPiece = getNewPiece()
            lastFallTime = time.time() # reset lastFallTime

            if not isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece):
                return # can't fit a new piece on the board, so game over

        checkForQuit()
        for event in pygame.event.get(): # event handling loop
            if event.type == KEYUP:
                if (event.key == K_p):
                    # Pausing the game
                    DISPLAYSURF.fill(BGCOLOR)
                    pygame.mixer.music.stop()
                    showTextScreen('Paused') # pause until a key press
                    pygame.mixer.music.play(-1, 0.0)
                    lastFallTime = time.time()
                    lastMoveDownTime = time.time()
                    lastMoveSidewaysTime = time.time()
                elif (event.key == K_LEFT or event.key == K_a):
                    movingLeft = False
                elif (event.key == K_RIGHT or event.key == K_d):
                    movingRight = False
                elif (event.key == K_DOWN or event.key == K_s):
                    movingDown = False

            elif event.type == KEYDOWN:
                # moving the piece sideways
                if (event.key == K_LEFT or event.key == K_a) and isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece, adjX=-1):
                    fallingPiece['x'] -= 1
                    movingLeft = True
                    movingRight = False
                    lastMoveSidewaysTime = time.time()

                elif (event.key == K_RIGHT or event.key == K_d) and isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece, adjX=1):
                    fallingPiece['x'] += 1
                    movingRight = True
                    movingLeft = False
                    lastMoveSidewaysTime = time.time()

                # rotating the piece (if there is room to rotate)
                elif (event.key == K_UP or event.key == K_w):
                    fallingPiece['rotation'] = (fallingPiece['rotation'] + 1) % len(PIECES[fallingPiece['shape']])
                    if not isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece):
                        fallingPiece['rotation'] = (fallingPiece['rotation'] - 1) % len(PIECES[fallingPiece['shape']])
                elif (event.key == K_q): # rotate the other direction
                    fallingPiece['rotation'] = (fallingPiece['rotation'] - 1) % len(PIECES[fallingPiece['shape']])
                    if not isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece):
                        fallingPiece['rotation'] = (fallingPiece['rotation'] + 1) % len(PIECES[fallingPiece['shape']])

                # making the piece fall faster with the down key
                elif (event.key == K_DOWN or event.key == K_s):
                    movingDown = True
                    if isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece, adjY=1):
                        fallingPiece['y'] += 1
                    lastMoveDownTime = time.time()

                # move the current piece all the way down
                elif event.key == K_SPACE:
                    movingDown = False
                    movingLeft = False
                    movingRight = False
                    for i in range(1, BOARDHEIGHT):
                        if not isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece, adjY=i):
                            break
                    fallingPiece['y'] += i - 1

        # handle moving the piece because of user input
        if (movingLeft or movingRight) and time.time() - lastMoveSidewaysTime > MOVESIDEWAYSFREQ:
            if movingLeft and isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece, adjX=-1):
                fallingPiece['x'] -= 1
            elif movingRight and isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece, adjX=1):
                fallingPiece['x'] += 1
            lastMoveSidewaysTime = time.time()

        if movingDown and time.time() - lastMoveDownTime > MOVEDOWNFREQ and isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece, adjY=1):
            fallingPiece['y'] += 1
            lastMoveDownTime = time.time()

        # let the piece fall if it is time to fall
        if time.time() - lastFallTime > fallFreq:
            # see if the piece has landed
            if not isValidPosition(board, fallingPiece, adjY=1):
                # falling piece has landed, set it on the board
                addToBoard(board, fallingPiece)
                score += removeCompleteLines(board)
                level, fallFreq = calculateLevelAndFallFreq(score)
                fallingPiece = None
            else:
                # piece did not land, just move the piece down
                fallingPiece['y'] += 1
                lastFallTime = time.time()

        # drawing everything on the screen
        DISPLAYSURF.fill(BGCOLOR)
        drawBoard(board)
        drawStatus(score, level)
        drawNextPiece(nextPiece)
        if fallingPiece != None:
            drawPiece(fallingPiece)

        pygame.display.update()
        FPSCLOCK.tick(FPS)


def makeTextObjs(text, font, color):
    surf = font.render(text, True, color)
    return surf, surf.get_rect()


def terminate():
    pygame.quit()
    sys.exit()


def checkForKeyPress():
    # Go through event queue looking for a KEYUP event.
    # Grab KEYDOWN events to remove them from the event queue.
    checkForQuit()

    for event in pygame.event.get([KEYDOWN, KEYUP]):
        if event.type == KEYDOWN:
            continue
        return event.key
    return None


def showTextScreen(text):
    # This function displays large text in the
    # center of the screen until a key is pressed.
    # Draw the text drop shadow
    titleSurf, titleRect = makeTextObjs(text, BIGFONT, TEXTSHADOWCOLOR)
    titleRect.center = (int(WINDOWWIDTH / 2), int(WINDOWHEIGHT / 2))
    DISPLAYSURF.blit(titleSurf, titleRect)

    # Draw the text
    titleSurf, titleRect = makeTextObjs(text, BIGFONT, TEXTCOLOR)
    titleRect.center = (int(WINDOWWIDTH / 2) - 3, int(WINDOWHEIGHT / 2) - 3)
    DISPLAYSURF.blit(titleSurf, titleRect)

    # Draw the additional "Press a key to play." text.
    pressKeySurf, pressKeyRect = makeTextObjs('Press a key to play.', BASICFONT, TEXTCOLOR)
    pressKeyRect.center = (int(WINDOWWIDTH / 2), int(WINDOWHEIGHT / 2) + 100)
    DISPLAYSURF.blit(pressKeySurf, pressKeyRect)

    while checkForKeyPress() == None:
        pygame.display.update()
        FPSCLOCK.tick()


def checkForQuit():
    for event in pygame.event.get(QUIT): # get all the QUIT events
        terminate() # terminate if any QUIT events are present
    for event in pygame.event.get(KEYUP): # get all the KEYUP events
        if event.key == K_ESCAPE:
            terminate() # terminate if the KEYUP event was for the Esc key
        pygame.event.post(event) # put the other KEYUP event objects back


def calculateLevelAndFallFreq(score):
    # Based on the score, return the level the player is on and
    # how many seconds pass until a falling piece falls one space.
    level = int(score / 10) + 1
    fallFreq = 0.27 - (level * 0.02)
    return level, fallFreq

def getNewPiece():
    # return a random new piece in a random rotation and color
    shape = random.choice(list(PIECES.keys()))
    newPiece = {'shape': shape,
                'rotation': random.randint(0, len(PIECES[shape]) - 1),
                'x': int(BOARDWIDTH / 2) - int(TEMPLATEWIDTH / 2),
                'y': -2, # start it above the board (i.e. less than 0)
                'color': random.randint(0, len(COLORS)-1)}
    return newPiece


def addToBoard(board, piece):
    # fill in the board based on piece's location, shape, and rotation
    for x in range(TEMPLATEWIDTH):
        for y in range(TEMPLATEHEIGHT):
            if PIECES[piece['shape']][piece['rotation']][y][x] != BLANK:
                board[x + piece['x']][y + piece['y']] = piece['color']


def getBlankBoard():
    # create and return a new blank board data structure
    board = []
    for i in range(BOARDWIDTH):
        board.append([BLANK] * BOARDHEIGHT)
    return board


def isOnBoard(x, y):
    return x >= 0 and x < BOARDWIDTH and y < BOARDHEIGHT


def isValidPosition(board, piece, adjX=0, adjY=0):
    # Return True if the piece is within the board and not colliding
    for x in range(TEMPLATEWIDTH):
        for y in range(TEMPLATEHEIGHT):
            isAboveBoard = y + piece['y'] + adjY < 0
            if isAboveBoard or PIECES[piece['shape']][piece['rotation']][y][x] == BLANK:
                continue
            if not isOnBoard(x + piece['x'] + adjX, y + piece['y'] + adjY):
                return False
            if board[x + piece['x'] + adjX][y + piece['y'] + adjY] != BLANK:
                return False
    return True

def isCompleteLine(board, y):
    # Return True if the line filled with boxes with no gaps.
    for x in range(BOARDWIDTH):
        if board[x][y] == BLANK:
            return False
    return True


def removeCompleteLines(board):
    # Remove any completed lines on the board, move everything above them down, and return the number of complete lines.
    numLinesRemoved = 0
    y = BOARDHEIGHT - 1 # start y at the bottom of the board
    while y >= 0:
        if isCompleteLine(board, y):
            # Remove the line and pull boxes down by one line.
            for pullDownY in range(y, 0, -1):
                for x in range(BOARDWIDTH):
                    board[x][pullDownY] = board[x][pullDownY-1]
            # Set very top line to blank.
            for x in range(BOARDWIDTH):
                board[x][0] = BLANK
            numLinesRemoved += 1
            # Note on the next iteration of the loop, y is the same.
            # This is so that if the line that was pulled down is also
            # complete, it will be removed.
        else:
            y -= 1 # move on to check next row up
    return numLinesRemoved


def convertToPixelCoords(boxx, boxy):
    # Convert the given xy coordinates of the board to xy
    # coordinates of the location on the screen.
    return (XMARGIN + (boxx * BOXSIZE)), (TOPMARGIN + (boxy * BOXSIZE))


def drawBox(boxx, boxy, color, pixelx=None, pixely=None):
    # draw a single box (each tetromino piece has four boxes)
    # at xy coordinates on the board. Or, if pixelx & pixely
    # are specified, draw to the pixel coordinates stored in
    # pixelx & pixely (this is used for the "Next" piece).
    if color == BLANK:
        return
    if pixelx == None and pixely == None:
        pixelx, pixely = convertToPixelCoords(boxx, boxy)
    pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, COLORS[color], (pixelx + 1, pixely + 1, BOXSIZE - 1, BOXSIZE - 1))
    pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, LIGHTCOLORS[color], (pixelx + 1, pixely + 1, BOXSIZE - 4, BOXSIZE - 4))


def drawBoard(board):
    # draw the border around the board
    pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, BORDERCOLOR, (XMARGIN - 3, TOPMARGIN - 7, (BOARDWIDTH * BOXSIZE) + 8, (BOARDHEIGHT * BOXSIZE) + 8), 5)

    # fill the background of the board
    pygame.draw.rect(DISPLAYSURF, BGCOLOR, (XMARGIN, TOPMARGIN, BOXSIZE * BOARDWIDTH, BOXSIZE * BOARDHEIGHT))
    # draw the individual boxes on the board
    for x in range(BOARDWIDTH):
        for y in range(BOARDHEIGHT):
            drawBox(x, y, board[x][y])


def drawStatus(score, level):
    # draw the score text
    scoreSurf = BASICFONT.render('Score: %s' % score, True, TEXTCOLOR)
    scoreRect = scoreSurf.get_rect()
    scoreRect.topleft = (WINDOWWIDTH - 150, 20)
    DISPLAYSURF.blit(scoreSurf, scoreRect)

    # draw the level text
    levelSurf = BASICFONT.render('Level: %s' % level, True, TEXTCOLOR)
    levelRect = levelSurf.get_rect()
    levelRect.topleft = (WINDOWWIDTH - 150, 50)
    DISPLAYSURF.blit(levelSurf, levelRect)


def drawPiece(piece, pixelx=None, pixely=None):
    shapeToDraw = PIECES[piece['shape']][piece['rotation']]
    if pixelx == None and pixely == None:
        # if pixelx & pixely hasn't been specified, use the location stored in the piece data structure
        pixelx, pixely = convertToPixelCoords(piece['x'], piece['y'])

    # draw each of the boxes that make up the piece
    for x in range(TEMPLATEWIDTH):
        for y in range(TEMPLATEHEIGHT):
            if shapeToDraw[y][x] != BLANK:
                drawBox(None, None, piece['color'], pixelx + (x * BOXSIZE), pixely + (y * BOXSIZE))


def drawNextPiece(piece):
    # draw the "next" text
    nextSurf = BASICFONT.render('Next:', True, TEXTCOLOR)
    nextRect = nextSurf.get_rect()
    nextRect.topleft = (WINDOWWIDTH - 120, 80)
    DISPLAYSURF.blit(nextSurf, nextRect)
    # draw the "next" piece
    drawPiece(piece, pixelx=WINDOWWIDTH-120, pixely=100)


if __name__ == '__main__':
    main()

最近编辑记录 pythinker (2019-10-09 22:24:49)

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