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#1 2020-01-11 09:10:01

红白机
会员
注册时间: 2020-01-02
累计积分: 133

转发一个opengl 渲染到缓冲区,写到文件的 demo

offscreen.c

/* http://stackoverflow.com/questions/3191978/how-to-use-glut-opengl-to-render-to-a-file/14324292#14324292 */

/* Turn output methods on and off. */
#ifndef PPM
#define PPM 1
#endif
#ifndef LIBPNG
#define LIBPNG 1
#endif
#ifndef FFMPEG
#define FFMPEG 1
#endif

#include <assert.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#define GL_GLEXT_PROTOTYPES 1
#include <GL/gl.h>
#include <GL/glu.h>
#include <GL/glut.h>
#include <GL/glext.h>

#if LIBPNG
#include <png.h>
#endif

#if FFMPEG
#include <libavcodec/avcodec.h>
#include <libavutil/imgutils.h>
#include <libavutil/opt.h>
#include <libswscale/swscale.h>
#endif

enum Constants { SCREENSHOT_MAX_FILENAME = 256 };
static GLubyte *pixels = NULL;
static GLuint fbo;
static GLuint rbo_color;
static GLuint rbo_depth;
static int offscreen = 1;
static unsigned int max_nframes = 128;
static unsigned int nframes = 0;
static unsigned int time0;
static unsigned int height = 128;
static unsigned int width = 128;
#define PPM_BIT (1 << 0)
#define LIBPNG_BIT (1 << 1)
#define FFMPEG_BIT (1 << 2)
static unsigned int output_formats = PPM_BIT | LIBPNG_BIT | FFMPEG_BIT;

/* Model. */
static double angle;
static double delta_angle;

#if PPM
/* Take screenshot with glReadPixels and save to a file in PPM format.
 *
 * -   filename: file path to save to, without extension
 * -   width: screen width in pixels
 * -   height: screen height in pixels
 * -   pixels: intermediate buffer to avoid repeated mallocs across multiple calls.
 *     Contents of this buffer do not matter. May be NULL, in which case it is initialized.
 *     You must `free` it when you won't be calling this function anymore.
 */
static void screenshot_ppm(const char *filename, unsigned int width,
        unsigned int height, GLubyte **pixels) {
    size_t i, j, cur;
    const size_t format_nchannels = 3;
    FILE *f = fopen(filename, "w");
    fprintf(f, "P3\n%d %d\n%d\n", width, height, 255);
    *pixels = realloc(*pixels, format_nchannels * sizeof(GLubyte) * width * height);
    glReadPixels(0, 0, width, height, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, *pixels);
    for (i = 0; i < height; i++) {
        for (j = 0; j < width; j++) {
            cur = format_nchannels * ((height - i - 1) * width + j);
            fprintf(f, "%3d %3d %3d ", (*pixels)[cur], (*pixels)[cur + 1], (*pixels)[cur + 2]);
        }
        fprintf(f, "\n");
    }
    fclose(f);
}
#endif

#if LIBPNG
/* Adapted from https://github.com/cirosantilli/cpp-cheat/blob/19044698f91fefa9cb75328c44f7a487d336b541/png/open_manipulate_write.c */
static png_byte *png_bytes = NULL;
static png_byte **png_rows = NULL;
static void screenshot_png(const char *filename, unsigned int width, unsigned int height,
        GLubyte **pixels, png_byte **png_bytes, png_byte ***png_rows) {
    size_t i, nvals;
    const size_t format_nchannels = 4;
    FILE *f = fopen(filename, "wb");
    nvals = format_nchannels * width * height;
    *pixels = realloc(*pixels, nvals * sizeof(GLubyte));
    *png_bytes = realloc(*png_bytes, nvals * sizeof(png_byte));
    *png_rows = realloc(*png_rows, height * sizeof(png_byte*));
    glReadPixels(0, 0, width, height, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, *pixels);
    for (i = 0; i < nvals; i++)
        (*png_bytes)[i] = (*pixels)[i];
    for (i = 0; i < height; i++)
        (*png_rows)[height - i - 1] = &(*png_bytes)[i * width * format_nchannels];
    png_structp png = png_create_write_struct(PNG_LIBPNG_VER_STRING, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    if (!png) abort();
    png_infop info = png_create_info_struct(png);
    if (!info) abort();
    if (setjmp(png_jmpbuf(png))) abort();
    png_init_io(png, f);
    png_set_IHDR(
        png,
        info,
        width,
        height,
        8,
        PNG_COLOR_TYPE_RGBA,
        PNG_INTERLACE_NONE,
        PNG_COMPRESSION_TYPE_DEFAULT,
        PNG_FILTER_TYPE_DEFAULT
    );
    png_write_info(png, info);
    png_write_image(png, *png_rows);
    png_write_end(png, NULL);
    png_destroy_write_struct(&png, &info);
    fclose(f);
}
#endif

#if FFMPEG
/* Adapted from: https://github.com/cirosantilli/cpp-cheat/blob/19044698f91fefa9cb75328c44f7a487d336b541/ffmpeg/encode.c */

static AVCodecContext *c = NULL;
static AVFrame *frame;
static AVPacket pkt;
static FILE *file;
static struct SwsContext *sws_context = NULL;
static uint8_t *rgb = NULL;

static void ffmpeg_encoder_set_frame_yuv_from_rgb(uint8_t *rgb) {
    const int in_linesize[1] = { 4 * c->width };
    sws_context = sws_getCachedContext(sws_context,
            c->width, c->height, AV_PIX_FMT_RGB32,
            c->width, c->height, AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P,
            0, NULL, NULL, NULL);
    sws_scale(sws_context, (const uint8_t * const *)&rgb, in_linesize, 0,
            c->height, frame->data, frame->linesize);
}

void ffmpeg_encoder_start(const char *filename, int codec_id, int fps, int width, int height) {
    AVCodec *codec;
    int ret;
    avcodec_register_all();
    codec = avcodec_find_encoder(codec_id);
    if (!codec) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Codec not found\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    c = avcodec_alloc_context3(codec);
    if (!c) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate video codec context\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    c->bit_rate = 400000;
    c->width = width;
    c->height = height;
    c->time_base.num = 1;
    c->time_base.den = fps;
    c->gop_size = 10;
    c->max_b_frames = 1;
    c->pix_fmt = AV_PIX_FMT_YUV420P;
    if (codec_id == AV_CODEC_ID_H264)
        av_opt_set(c->priv_data, "preset", "slow", 0);
    if (avcodec_open2(c, codec, NULL) < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not open codec\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    file = fopen(filename, "wb");
    if (!file) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not open %s\n", filename);
        exit(1);
    }
    frame = av_frame_alloc();
    if (!frame) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate video frame\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    frame->format = c->pix_fmt;
    frame->width  = c->width;
    frame->height = c->height;
    ret = av_image_alloc(frame->data, frame->linesize, c->width, c->height, c->pix_fmt, 32);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Could not allocate raw picture buffer\n");
        exit(1);
    }
}

void ffmpeg_encoder_finish(void) {
    uint8_t endcode[] = { 0, 0, 1, 0xb7 };
    int got_output, ret;
    do {
        fflush(stdout);
        ret = avcodec_encode_video2(c, &pkt, NULL, &got_output);
        if (ret < 0) {
            fprintf(stderr, "Error encoding frame\n");
            exit(1);
        }
        if (got_output) {
            fwrite(pkt.data, 1, pkt.size, file);
            av_packet_unref(&pkt);
        }
    } while (got_output);
    fwrite(endcode, 1, sizeof(endcode), file);
    fclose(file);
    avcodec_close(c);
    av_free(c);
    av_freep(&frame->data[0]);
    av_frame_free(&frame);
}

void ffmpeg_encoder_encode_frame(uint8_t *rgb) {
    int ret, got_output;
    ffmpeg_encoder_set_frame_yuv_from_rgb(rgb);
    av_init_packet(&pkt);
    pkt.data = NULL;
    pkt.size = 0;
    ret = avcodec_encode_video2(c, &pkt, frame, &got_output);
    if (ret < 0) {
        fprintf(stderr, "Error encoding frame\n");
        exit(1);
    }
    if (got_output) {
        fwrite(pkt.data, 1, pkt.size, file);
        av_packet_unref(&pkt);
    }
}

void ffmpeg_encoder_glread_rgb(uint8_t **rgb, GLubyte **pixels, unsigned int width, unsigned int height) {
    size_t i, j, k, cur_gl, cur_rgb, nvals;
    const size_t format_nchannels = 4;
    nvals = format_nchannels * width * height;
    *pixels = realloc(*pixels, nvals * sizeof(GLubyte));
    *rgb = realloc(*rgb, nvals * sizeof(uint8_t));
    /* Get RGBA to align to 32 bits instead of just 24 for RGB. May be faster for FFmpeg. */
    glReadPixels(0, 0, width, height, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, *pixels);
    for (i = 0; i < height; i++) {
        for (j = 0; j < width; j++) {
            cur_gl  = format_nchannels * (width * (height - i - 1) + j);
            cur_rgb = format_nchannels * (width * i + j);
            for (k = 0; k < format_nchannels; k++)
                (*rgb)[cur_rgb + k] = (*pixels)[cur_gl + k];
        }
    }
}
#endif

static void model_init(void) {
    angle = 0;
    delta_angle = 1;
}

static int model_update(void) {
    angle += delta_angle;
    return 0;
}

static int model_finished(void) {
    return nframes >= max_nframes;
}

static void init(void)  {
    int glget;

    if (offscreen) {
        /*  Framebuffer */
        glGenFramebuffers(1, &fbo);
        glBindFramebuffer(GL_FRAMEBUFFER, fbo);

        /* Color renderbuffer. */
        glGenRenderbuffers(1, &rbo_color);
        glBindRenderbuffer(GL_RENDERBUFFER, rbo_color);
        /* Storage must be one of: */
        /* GL_RGBA4, GL_RGB565, GL_RGB5_A1, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT16, GL_STENCIL_INDEX8. */
        glRenderbufferStorage(GL_RENDERBUFFER, GL_RGB565, width, height);
        glFramebufferRenderbuffer(GL_DRAW_FRAMEBUFFER, GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0, GL_RENDERBUFFER, rbo_color);

        /* Depth renderbuffer. */
        glGenRenderbuffers(1, &rbo_depth);
        glBindRenderbuffer(GL_RENDERBUFFER, rbo_depth);
        glRenderbufferStorage(GL_RENDERBUFFER, GL_DEPTH_COMPONENT16, width, height);
        glFramebufferRenderbuffer(GL_DRAW_FRAMEBUFFER, GL_DEPTH_ATTACHMENT, GL_RENDERBUFFER, rbo_depth);

        glReadBuffer(GL_COLOR_ATTACHMENT0);

        /* Sanity check. */
        assert(glCheckFramebufferStatus(GL_FRAMEBUFFER));
        glGetIntegerv(GL_MAX_RENDERBUFFER_SIZE, &glget);
        assert(width < (unsigned int)glget);
        assert(height < (unsigned int)glget);
    } else {
        glReadBuffer(GL_BACK);
    }

    glClearColor(0.0, 0.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    glEnable(GL_DEPTH_TEST);
    glPixelStorei(GL_UNPACK_ALIGNMENT, 1);
    glViewport(0, 0, width, height);
    glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
    glLoadIdentity();
    glMatrixMode(GL_MODELVIEW);

    time0 = glutGet(GLUT_ELAPSED_TIME);
    model_init();
#if FFMPEG
    ffmpeg_encoder_start("tmp.mpg", AV_CODEC_ID_MPEG1VIDEO, 25, width, height);
#endif
}

static void deinit(void)  {
    printf("FPS = %f\n", 1000.0 * nframes / (double)(glutGet(GLUT_ELAPSED_TIME) - time0));
    free(pixels);
#if LIBPNG
    if (output_formats & LIBPNG_BIT) {
        free(png_bytes);
        free(png_rows);
    }
#endif
#if FFMPEG
    if (output_formats & FFMPEG_BIT) {
        ffmpeg_encoder_finish();
        free(rgb);
    }
#endif
    if (offscreen) {
        glDeleteFramebuffers(1, &fbo);
        glDeleteRenderbuffers(1, &rbo_color);
        glDeleteRenderbuffers(1, &rbo_depth);
    }
}

static void draw_scene(void) {
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT | GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT);
    glLoadIdentity();
    glRotatef(angle, 0.0f, 0.0f, -1.0f);
    glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
    glColor3f(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
    glVertex3f( 0.0f,  0.5f, 0.0f);
    glColor3f(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f);
    glVertex3f(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f);
    glColor3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
    glVertex3f( 0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f);
    glEnd();
}

static void display(void) {
    char filename[SCREENSHOT_MAX_FILENAME];
    draw_scene();
    if (offscreen) {
        glFlush();
    } else {
        glutSwapBuffers();
    }
#if PPM
    if (output_formats & PPM_BIT) {
        snprintf(filename, SCREENSHOT_MAX_FILENAME, "tmp.%d.ppm", nframes);
        screenshot_ppm(filename, width, height, &pixels);
    }
#endif
#if LIBPNG
    if (output_formats & LIBPNG_BIT) {
        snprintf(filename, SCREENSHOT_MAX_FILENAME, "tmp.%d.png", nframes);
        screenshot_png(filename, width, height, &pixels, &png_bytes, &png_rows);
    }
#endif
# if FFMPEG
    if (output_formats & FFMPEG_BIT) {
        frame->pts = nframes;
        ffmpeg_encoder_glread_rgb(&rgb, &pixels, width, height);
        ffmpeg_encoder_encode_frame(rgb);
    }
#endif
    nframes++;
    if (model_finished())
        exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

static void idle(void) {
    while (model_update());
    glutPostRedisplay();
}

int main(int argc, char **argv) {
    int arg;
    GLint glut_display;

    /* CLI args. */
    glutInit(&argc, argv);
    arg = 1;
    if (argc > arg) {
        offscreen = (argv[arg][0] == '1');
    } else {
        offscreen = 1;
    }
    arg++;
    if (argc > arg) {
        max_nframes = strtoumax(argv[arg], NULL, 10);
    }
    arg++;
    if (argc > arg) {
        width = strtoumax(argv[arg], NULL, 10);
    }
    arg++;
    if (argc > arg) {
        height = strtoumax(argv[arg], NULL, 10);
    }
    arg++;
    if (argc > arg) {
        output_formats = strtoumax(argv[arg], NULL, 10);
    }

    /* Work. */
    if (offscreen) {
        /* TODO: if we use anything smaller than the window, it only renders a smaller version of things. */
        /*glutInitWindowSize(50, 50);*/
        glutInitWindowSize(width, height);
        glut_display = GLUT_SINGLE;
    } else {
        glutInitWindowSize(width, height);
        glutInitWindowPosition(100, 100);
        glut_display = GLUT_DOUBLE;
    }
    glutInitDisplayMode(glut_display | GLUT_RGBA | GLUT_DEPTH);
    glutCreateWindow(argv[0]);
    if (offscreen) {
        /* TODO: if we hide the window the program blocks. */
        /*glutHideWindow();*/
    }
    init();
    glutDisplayFunc(display);
    glutIdleFunc(idle);
    atexit(deinit);
    glutMainLoop();
    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

安装sdk:

sudo apt-get install libpng-dev libavcodec-dev libavutil-dev

编译:

gcc -DPPM=1 -DLIBPNG=1 -DFFMPEG=1 -ggdb3 -std=c99 -O0 -Wall -Wextra \
  -o offscreen offscreen.c -lGL -lGLU -lglut -lpng -lavcodec -lswscale -lavutil

运行:

./offscreen

然后就生成了一堆你需要的 ppm, png, mpg文件

参考1: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3191978/how-to-use-glut-opengl-to-render-to-a-file
参考2: https://github.com/cirosantilli/cpp-cheat/blob/master/opengl/offscreen.c

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#2 2020-01-12 00:54:50

超级萌新
会员
注册时间: 2018-05-04
累计积分: 406

Re: 转发一个opengl 渲染到缓冲区,写到文件的 demo

也就是说也可以渲染到vnc里面了,有点意思, 有空试一试libvncserver.

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#3 2020-01-12 09:01:05

raspberryman
会员
注册时间: 2019-12-27
累计积分: 74

Re: 转发一个opengl 渲染到缓冲区,写到文件的 demo

刚刚好奇试了一下, 确实可以用, 还可以当 ppm, png, ffmpeg 的demo玩哦。

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#4 2020-01-12 09:33:24

我思故我在
会员
注册时间: 2019-09-03
累计积分: 159

Re: 转发一个opengl 渲染到缓冲区,写到文件的 demo

感谢分享, 确实好用。

本地窗口显示256帧800x480旋转三角形:

./offscreen 0 256 800 480

渲染256帧800x480旋转三角形到ppm(2^0)文件:

./offscreen 1 256 800 480 0

渲染256帧800x480旋转三角形到png(2^1)文件:

./offscreen 1 256 800 480 2

渲染256帧800x480旋转三角形到mpg(2^2)文件:

./offscreen 1 256 800 480 4

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#5 2020-01-12 09:48:15

我思故我在
会员
注册时间: 2019-09-03
累计积分: 159

Re: 转发一个opengl 渲染到缓冲区,写到文件的 demo

#include <GL/glut.h>
void display(void)
{
	glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
	glColor4f(0.2f, 0.4f, 0.6f, 0.0f);
	glRectf(-0.5f, -0.5f, 0.5f, 0.5f);
	glFlush();
}

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
	glutInit(&argc, argv);
	glutInitDisplayMode(GLUT_RGB | GLUT_SINGLE);
	glutInitWindowPosition(100, 100);
	glutInitWindowSize(400, 400);
	glutCreateWindow("hello world");
	glutDisplayFunc(display);
	glutMainLoop();
	return 0;
}

顺手写了一个简单的opengl 程序。

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#6 2020-01-21 18:05:44

XZHDJH
会员
注册时间: 2020-01-18
累计积分: 21

Re: 转发一个opengl 渲染到缓冲区,写到文件的 demo

mark,感谢大佬分享

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#7 2020-02-20 19:58:40

firstman
会员
注册时间: 2019-04-06
累计积分: 278

Re: 转发一个opengl 渲染到缓冲区,写到文件的 demo

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/11474078/efficient-off-screen-rendering-of-qpainterpaths-opengl-and-non-opengl-solution

#include <QApplication>
#include <Windows.h>
#include <gl/GL.h>
#include <gl/GLU.h>
#include <QtOpenGL/QGLFormat>
#include <QtOpenGL/QGLPixelBuffer>
#include <QImage>

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    QApplication a(argc, argv);

    // Construct an OpenGL pixel buffer.
    QGLPixelBuffer glPixBuf(100, 100);
    // Make the QGLContext object bound to pixel buffer the current context
    glPixBuf.makeCurrent();
    // The opengl commands
    glClearColor(1.0, 1.0, 1.0, 0.0);
    glViewport(0, 0, 100, 100);
    glMatrixMode(GL_PROJECTION);
    glLoadIdentity();
    gluOrtho2D(0, 100, 0, 100);
    glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);
    glColor3f(1.0, 0.0, 0.0);
    glPointSize(4.0);
    glBegin(GL_TRIANGLES);
    glVertex2i(10, 10);
    glVertex2i(50, 50);
    glVertex2i(25, 75);
    glEnd();
    // At last, the pixel buffer was saved as an image
    auto pImage = glPixBuf.toImage();
    pImage.save(QString::fromLocal8Bit("gl.png"));

    return a.exec();
}

记得 qt pro 工程文件要添加:

QT       += core gui opengl

LIBS += -lopengl32 -lglu32

这里有一个OpenGL Qt渲染到内存, 然后输出到文件的demo

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